How to Solve Excessive Memory Usage in MySQL?

Overview of MySQL:
MySQL stands out as the most widely used database in web applications, renowned for its cost-effectiveness, ease of administration, and universal hosting provider support. However, a prevalent issue encountered by MySQL servers is the escalation of server load owing to high memory consumption.

Reasons for High Memory Consumption in MySQL:

Application Software Impact: Inefficiently configured or unoptimized queries, complex coding, and other issues in application software (Python, PHP, JAVA threads) can lead to increased memory usage.

MySQL Configuration Issues: Improper configuration of MySQL settings can result in inefficient memory usage or unnecessary memory wastage.

Insufficient Server Memory: When the available memory is insufficient for the processes running on the server, it can contribute to high memory consumption.

Resolutions to Mitigate MySQL’s High Memory Usage:

Optimize MySQL Settings: MySQL utilizes memory in two ways: Global Buffers (permanently reserved memory) and dynamic memory (requested from the operating system). Keep the total memory usage (Global Buffers Plus Thread Buffers) below 90% for dedicated servers and 50% for shared servers.

Key MySQL settings to check:

innodb_buffer_pool_size: Caching for InnoDB storage, assigned 50-70% of available RAM.
key_buffer_size: For MYISAM storage engine, set around 20% of RAM size.
max_connections: Limits connections based on RAM size.
query_cache_size: Useful for tables with infrequent changes, set to a minimal value to avoid resource contention.

Block Resource Abusers: Detect and block excessively high connections in a short time using MySQL’s PROCESSLIST, especially during attacks.

Address Slow Queries: Identify and optimize slow-executing queries to reduce disk reads, subsequently lowering memory and CPU usage for enhanced server performance.

Upgrade RAM: If, even after optimizing database settings, the server continues to rely on swap memory, consider increasing the RAM for improved performance.

By implementing these measures, you can effectively address and mitigate high memory usage issues in MySQL, ensuring optimal performance for your web applications.

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